Bolkhov is the city where tsars Ivan the Terrible and Alexei Romanov found their love, the city of the oldest temples in the region and the tallest bell towers, which is often called the "younger brother" of Suzdal. Bolkhovskaya land is the birthplace of Guryev porridge and the Russian trotting trotter. Having preserved the buildings and the flavor of a rich merchant pre-revolutionary city, Bolkhov claims the status of the capital of bell ringing. On big holidays, being in the middle point between three ancient bell towers, you can hear the unique three-tone play of the bell ringers. Occasionally, a bell, buried by monks during a raid by steppe dwellers, is heard from under the ground.

Город Болхов. Бирюзовое кольцо России


Bolkhov is a small town in the Orel region. Ancient temples, the ringing of bells, merchant houses with large basements, entire streets of ancient buildings, numerous springs right in the city act as a life-giving moisture for tired travelers on their way of life. Lovers of antiquity, artists and poets come here in search of inspiration, historians and art historians to explore ancient monuments, and, of course, pilgrims to pray at holy sites.

In 1565, the defenders of the Bolkhov fortress held off the onslaught of the troops of Khan Devlet Giray. The glorious defense attracted the favor of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, who, in 1566, visited Bolkhov and rewarded the voivodes Ivan the Golden and Vasily Kashin. After that, Ivan the Terrible decided to create the Orel fortress.

The son of the first tsar of the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Fedorovich, from his marriage to Evdokia Streshneva. During his reign, the text of the Council Code was signed — the new foundations of Russian legislation, new central orders (central government bodies) were established: Secret Affairs (1648), Monastic (1648), Little Russian (1649), Reitarsky (1651), Counting (1657), Lithuanian (1656) and Bread (1663). Under him, the first reformation of the Russian army in the XVII century began — the introduction of mercenary "regiments of the new system". The major achievement of Russian diplomacy during his reign was the reunification of Ukraine with Russia.
In 1648, the tsar married Maria Miloslavskaya, a native of Bolkhovsky district. Maria had 13 children. Her three children are the future tsars Fyodor and Ivan, as well as the tsarevna-ruler Sophia.

born in the patrimony of her father, boyar, diplomat I.D. Miloslavsky, who owned the villages of Near Ilyinskoye and Borovoye in Bolkhovsky district. The most revered place and resting place of the Miloslavsky family was the Bolkhovsky Optina Monastery of the Nativity of the Virgin. In 1668, 72-year-old boyar Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky died, who was buried on his territory in the crypt-tomb of the Miloslavskys, built by him earlier, where the coffins with the remains of all the Miloslavskys were moved.
The Tsar and the Tsarina begin construction of the stone church of the Holy Trinity, the oldest preserved stone temple in the Orel region. In connection with the start of construction, the monastery received a new name – Troitsky. In 1688, the church was completed. It repeated in miniature the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin and was intended as a tomb for the Miloslavskys. All the crosses of the Tsar's Trinity Cathedral were crowned with crowns.

In 1681, Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich wanted to establish a new diocese in Bolkhov, which would include the cities of Mtsensk, Novosil, Karachev, Kromy and Orel, but did not manage to do this during his lifetime.
Fyodor Alekseevich died on April 27, 1682 at the age of 20, without making an order regarding the succession to the throne, and was buried in the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. The issue of succession to the throne caused unrest, which was resolved by the decision to marry two tsars to the kingdom at the same time — Feodor's young brothers Ivan and Peter under the regency of their elder sister Sophia Alekseevna.

Tsarevna, daughter of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, in 1682-1689 regent under younger brothers Peter and Ivan.
In memory of the homeland of the Miloslavskys, she favored Bolkhov. She donated funds for the construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral, Optina Monastery. The gifts of Tsarevna Sophia Alekseevna — robes, surplice, Gospel of 1681, and other valuables were in the temples of Bolkhov.

In 1688, by decree of Tsars Ivan and Peter Alekseevich, 300 rubles were granted for the maintenance of the Trinity Cathedral of Optina Monastery.
In June 1706, Emperor Peter I and Tsarevich Alexei visited Bolkhov.
In 1720, the Decree of Peter 1 was issued on the creation of teaching Balkhov residents to make leather. According to this decree, two foreign craftsmen were sent to Bolkhov and the district, where there were over 117 tanneries with annual production of 3-6 thousand rubles. As a result of this attention, the Bolkhov tanners had annual contracts for their products for the army.

on January 14, 1780. The first development plan for the city of Bolkhov has been approved. Her Imperial Majesty Catherine II approved and signed the plan personally with her own hand, "Be it so."

EMPEROR PAUL I of RUSSIA (1754-1801)
The history of the village of Pavlodar is connected with the name of Paul I in Bolkhov. At the beginning of the XIX century, the famous mathematician Efim Voitekhovsky, the creator of the textbook "Living Mathematics" in Bolkhovsky district, was granted a cottage by Paul I. Voityakhovsky was always proud of this gift, and in gratitude to him he named his farms Pavlodar.


Bolkhov is the capital of bell ringing

Bolkhov or Devyagorsk is a city of belfries and temples. The tallest belfry in the Orel region, the bell tower of St. George the Victorious, is only 4 meters lower than the bell tower of Ivan the Great in the Moscow Kremlin. Only in Bolkhov on big holidays, being in the middle point between the three bell towers, you can hear the unique three-tone play of the bell ringers.

According to legend, when approaching the town of the steppe people, monks hid two large bells in a backwater near the monastery. The dashing time is over. They got one bell, but they couldn't get the other one. And when the first bell rings, the second one answers it from the ground. The supposed hiding place of the second bell is located on the territory of the modern city.

Ivan the Terrible was married in the now preserved Trinity Church. According to legend, after the wedding, the tsar scattered gold coins near the temple, and the royal boot lost by Ivan Vasilyevich has not been found to this day.

Today, 11 churches have been preserved in Bolkhov, and Bolkhov residents reverently honor Orthodox traditions.

Telegin Stud Farm

In 1872, the acting state councilor Vasily Telegin founded his own horse breeding plant. With the new breed of horses he bred, he participated in many prestigious races. The main source of income was the prizes taken by the horses of the Teleginsky stud farm.

During the lifetime of the creator, the stud farm became one of the largest and most famous in Central Russia. Nikolai Vasilyevich Telegin became famous as a talented breeder and breeder of the Russian trotter.

In 2005, the manor house became a museum after restoration. The stud farm has gained a second life – modern stables with a solarium for horses, maternity, veterinary, etc. have appeared.

Here the traveler can test his riding skills and learn about the history of horse breeding in Russia.

Bolkhov has been mentioned since 1196. One of the famous Bolkhov residents was Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky, who married his daughters to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and boyar Boris Morozov. The rise of the Miloslavskys also elevated the Bolkhs, temples began to be intensively built here, the first Moscow-Kiev postal route passed through the city, leather industry, agriculture and yamskoe business developed. By 1917, there were 28 parish churches and 2 monasteries in the city.

One of the oldest urban legends is associated with the bells of the Trinity Monastery. The monastery in ancient times was poor and had only two bells of one and a half poods each. During the Tatar siege, the monks hid these bells in a lake next to the monastery, on the site of which there is now a meadow. After the enemies left, the monks were able to get only one of them. Since then, when the saved bell rang in the monastery, another one rang from the ground. The preserved Trinity Cathedral of the monastery was built by the efforts of the royal family in 1688. In memory of this, all his crosses are crowned with crowns.

The Transfiguration Cathedral stands on the central square of the city and accommodates up to 4,500 people. In 1833, a four-tiered 40-meter bell tower with a clock was added to it by craftsmen from Mtsensk and Bolkhov. The main bell of the temple weighed more than 700 pounds and could be heard for 20 versts.

From afar, at the entrance to Bolkhov, the bell tower of St. George's Church is noticeable - the tallest bell tower in the Orel region is 76 meters. They say that the merchant Gubarev built it after selling his business, as a memorial candle in memory of his beloved.

One of the most beautiful in the region can be called the bell tower of the Holy Trinity Church, which is part of the unified architectural bell complex of the city center together with the St. George and the Transfiguration Bell towers. Belfries are also found in most of the city's churches and in the Trinity Monastery.